Ventilation of a Shopping Mall in the City of Ioannina


The project was commissioned by LDK Consultants and the scope of the CFD study was to predict if the temperature field inside the mall public spaces is appropriately low during summer and sufficiently high during winter, to guarantee the thermal comfort of the visitors and employees. The “Mean Age of Air “was also estimated for every point of the mall, in order to highlight dead zones with stagnant air. Such regions, indicate poor air quality conditions and may be also related to unpleasant cooking odours in the food court or smell near the WCs.

The 3D geometric model (Fig. 2) was reconstructed from available drawings, printouts and CAD files (Fig. 1). Then, a mesh of 3.8M cells was created (Fig. 3), composed of only hex and prismatic elements. Then the air flow rates from each shop into the mall’s public spaces was imposed as boundary condition, according to customer’s design. Thermal loads due to solar radiation, lighting and human-density was prescribed as source terms. Due to the buoyant nature of the flow, the calculations were executed in a transient matter.

Simulations were performed for the three weather scenarios: (a) Summertime without A/C, (b) wintertime without heating and (c) wintertime with floor heating. Fig. 4 shows the time history of the air temperature for scenario (a) in various mall spaces and it is clear that approximately a time period of 10 [min] is required for the solution to be stabilised. Fig. 5 shows the air temperature contours for scenario (a) at floor level and at a height of 1.0 [m] above floor.